Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2018;27(1):47-64. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.042017.07
Background and Objectives: The present report summarized the best available evidence regarding consumption level and sources of free or added sugars in Indonesia.
Methods and Study Design: Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys, published studies, unpublished theses/ dissertations, and government reports.
Results: A total of 18 references were obtained, showing varying results. Indonesia’s national surveys suggested intakes of sugar below 50 grams per day or below 10% of energy intake. Published studies suggested higher levels of intake. Studies used expenditure surveys or a single day of recall to determine dietary intake. None made use of biomarkers to determine the level of sugar intake. The 2014 Total Diet Study estimated that 11.8% of the population consumed >50 grams sugar per day. Common food sources were table sugar, wheat products, milk products, sweetened drinks, condiments, candies and chocolate products.
Conclusions: Insufficient evidence exists regarding the levels and sources of added sugar intake of different population groups in Indonesia. A nationwide survey using multiple (at least two) 24-hour recalls to allow estimation of usual intake and to identify food sources, and the use of biomarkers to validate intake will provide more accurate information on which to base policy decisions.
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